How do ABC transporters lead to drug resistance?
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis.
What is parasitic drug resistance?
Antiparasitic resistance is the genetic ability of parasites to survive treatment with an antiparasitic drug that was generally effective against those parasites in the past.
What is the clinical significance of ABC transporter?
Overexpression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a major contributing factor resulting in MDR, which can recognize and mediate the efflux of diverse drugs from cancer cells, thereby decreasing intracellular drug concentration.
How do microbes use ABC transporter?
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters couple ATP hydrolysis to the uptake and efflux of solutes across the cell membrane in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. In bacteria, these transporters are important virulence factors because they play roles in nutrient uptake and in secretion of toxins and antimicrobial agents.
What is PGP substrate?
Substrates of P-glycoprotein are susceptible to changes in pharmacokinetics due to drug interactions with P-gp inhibitors or inducers. Some of these substrates include colchicine, ciclosporin, dabigatran, digoxin, diltiazem, fexofenadine, indinavir, morphine, and sirolimus.
What are MDR transporters?
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are membrane transporters that hydrolyse ATP for the transmembrane transport of various amphiphilic molecules including lipids, peptides, homones, sterols, antigens.
How do protozoa drugs work?
Antiprotozoal agents destroy protozoa or inhibit their growth and ability to reproduce. They damage the protozoal DNA to limit the spread of infection. They inhibit a fundamental pathway of energy metabolism (inhibition of parasite dehydrogenase activity) in the protozoa, thus making them unable to grow and reproduce.
What are antiparasitic drugs used for?
Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites.
What is the ABC transport system?
The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and possibly one of the oldest gene families. It is represented in all extant phyla, from prokaryotes to humans. ABC transporters belong to translocases.
What are ABC transporters that are found in bacterial membranes?
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a major category of membrane-associated bacterial protein structures involved in the transport of a wide range of substrates. Streptococcus pneumoniae has over 60 ABC transporters, most of which are conserved in all strains. Around two-thirds of S.
What is P-gp in medicine?
P-gp is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds with broad substrate specificity. It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs.
What drugs are P-gp substrates?
Examples of drugs that are substrates of P-gp efflux pump include: Apixaban, colchicine, cyclosporine, dabigatran, digoxin, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, and tacrolimus.