What are the features of vector borne disease?
Vector-Borne Disease: Disease that results from an infection transmitted to humans and other animals by blood-feeding anthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. Examples of vector-borne diseases include Dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, and malaria.
How do you control a disease vector?
Insecticides, larvicides, rodenticides, Lethal ovitraps and repellents can be used to control vectors. For example, larvicides can be used in mosquito breeding zones; insecticides can be applied to house walls or bed nets, and use of personal repellents can reduce incidence of insect bites and thus infection.
What is the best treatment for filaria?
Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), which is both microfilaricidal and active against the adult worm, is the drug of choice for lymphatic filariasis. The late phase of chronic disease is not affected by chemotherapy. Ivermectin is effective against the microfilariae of W.
What is Malarias life cycle?
The malaria parasite life cycle involves two hosts. During a blood meal, a malaria-infected female Anopheles mosquito inoculates sporozoites into the human host . Sporozoites infect liver cells and mature into schizonts , which rupture and release merozoites .
How can filaria be prevented?
Prevention & Control
- At night. Sleep in an air-conditioned room or. Sleep under a mosquito net.
- Between dusk and dawn. Wear long sleeves and trousers and. Use mosquito repellent on exposed skin. Another approach to prevention includes giving entire communities medicine that kills the microscopic worms — and controlling mosquitoes.
What is the life cycle of filariasis?
There the microfilariae develop into first-stage larvae and subsequently into third-stage infective larvae . The third-stage infective larvae migrate through the hemocoel to the mosquito’s prosbocis and can infect another human when the mosquito takes a blood meal .
How is microfilaria transmitted?
The infection spreads from person to person by mosquito bites. The adult worm lives in the human lymph vessels, mates, and produces millions of microscopic worms, also known as microfilariae. Microfilariae circulate in the person’s blood and infect the mosquito when it bites a person who is infected.
What kills microfilaria?
An injectable drug, melarsomine (brand name Immiticide®), is given to kill adult heartworms.
What is a vector in infection control?
Vectors. Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious pathogens between humans, or from animals to humans.
What is the filaria disease?
Filariasis is an infectious tropical disease caused by any one of several thread-like parasitic round worms. The two species of worms most often associated with this disease are Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The larval form of the parasite transmits the disease to humans by the bite of a mosquito.
How can waterborne diseases be prevented?
Here are several ways to prevent water-borne diseases:
- Drink only filtered/boiled water.
- Store water in a clean container,
- Water jars/containers should be washed daily.
- Always wash hands before and after preparing food or eating, likewise, children should be taught on hand washing.
How does filariasis start?
How is lymphatic filariasis spread? The disease spreads from person to person by mosquito bites. When a mosquito bites a person who has lymphatic filariasis, microscopic worms circulating in the person’s blood enter and infect the mosquito.
How is filariasis detected?
The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis circulate in the blood at night (called nocturnal periodicity).
How long do microfilariae live?
Microfilariae persisted in 1-ml blood samples for 60, 62, 91, and 101 weeks following removal of adult worms. The results indicate clearly that in a naturally produced population, in a natural definitive host, microfilariae survive for 60 to 100 weeks.
What does microfilaria mean?
Microfilaria is the term used to refer to the larva of a certain parasitic nematode, i.e., filariae when it is still in an early larval stage. These parasites are released into the bloodstream of the host by the adult parasites.
How do you treat microfilaria?
Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is the drug of choice in the United States. The drug kills the microfilariae and some of the adult worms. DEC has been used world-wide for more than 50 years.
How can we prevent water borne and vector borne disease?
There are several ways to prevent these illnesses:
- Use good environmental management.
- Practice good personal hygiene.
- Take food safety precautions to learn about the fundamentals of food safety so that you can protect yourself, your friends, family and people in your community.
- Drink properly treated water.
Can filaria be cured?
Lymphatic filariasis can be eliminated by stopping the spread of infection through preventive chemotherapy with safe medicine combinations repeated annually. More than 7.7 billion treatments have been delivered to stop the spread of infection since 2000.
Is filariasis a vector-borne disease?
Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease, being transmitted by mosquitoes (e.g. Culex, Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes). Infected individuals may be asymptomatic, with no external sign of infection.