What is a secondary effect?

What is a secondary effect?

The primary effects of earthquakes are caused by the surface rupture along the fault and by the ground shaking via the earthquake energy release. The secondary effects are the effects that occur directly as a result of this earthquake shaking and energy release, i.e., the onset of a tsunami wave, or a landslide.

What are the economic impacts of tsunamis?

In terms of the death toll and the number of displaced people, this was the worst natural disaster in recorded history in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The total economic cost of damage was estimated at US$ 9.4 billion.

What is disaster explain different types of disaster?

Geophysical (e.g. Earthquakes, Landslides, Tsunamis and Volcanic Activity) Hydrological (e.g. Avalanches and Floods) Climatological (e.g. Extreme Temperatures, Drought and Wildfires) Meteorological (e.g. Cyclones and Storms/Wave Surges) Biological (e.g. Disease Epidemics and Insect/Animal Plagues)

What is meant by the term disaster?

Definition : DISASTER : A disaster is an occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community.

What are the different types of disasters explain any two of them?

Types of disasters usually fall into two broad categories: natural and man-made. Natural disasters are generally associated with weather and geological events, including extremes of temperature, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and drought.

What is a disaster Class 9?

A disaster is a destructive event that occurs suddenly and involves loss of life and property. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, floods, cyclones, landslides, avalanches and droughts are natural disasters and man has no control over them.

Are human involved in triggering natural disasters?

So there’s little doubt that humans influence natural disasters over the long term. But can we also trigger sudden “natural” catastrophes? The answer is yes. From mud volcanoes to disappearing lakes, human actions can have all sorts of unforeseen environmental consequences.

What are the human activities that cause natural disasters?

Scientists state that human activities have become a trigger for many natural disasters….Here is a list of activities that are responsible for it:

  • Deforestation.
  • Urban development.
  • Natural wetland destruction.
  • Agricultural activities.
  • Hydroelectric power.

What are the social impacts of tsunamis?

Social impacts of the tsunami (effects on people) 230 000 deaths. 1.7 million homeless. 5-6 million needing emergency aid, eg food and water. Threat of disease from mixing of fresh water, sewage and salt water.

What is referred to be the primary earthquake hazard?

Primary earthquake hazards are: ground shaking. landslides. liquefaction. surface rupture.

Is liquefaction primary or secondary?

In areas underlain by such material, the ground shaking causes the grains to lose grain to grain contact, and thus the material tends to flow. Liquefaction, because it is a direct result of ground shaking, is a primary effect.

What is surface faulting?

Surface faulting is displacement that reaches the earth’s surface during slip along a fault. Commonly occurs with shallow earthquakes, those with an epicenter less than 20 km. Surface faulting also may accompany aseismic creep or natural or man-induced subsidence.

What is the difference between primary and secondary impacts?

Effects are often classified as primary and secondary impacts. Primary effects occur as a direct result of the ground shaking, eg buildings collapsing. Secondary effects occur as a result of the primary effects, eg tsunamis or fires due to ruptured gas mains.

What are the examples of man-made disasters?

Man-made disasters can include hazardous material spills, fires, groundwater contamination, transportation accidents, structure failures, mining accidents, explosions and acts of terrorism. There are actions that we can take to prepare to react appropriately to these events.

What is an example of a primary effect?

Primary Effects occur as a result of the process itself. For example water damage due to a flood, and collapse of buildings due to an earthquake, landslide, hurricane, or tornado. Secondary Effects occur only because a primary effect has caused them.

What is a social impact?

Social impact is the effect on people and communities that happens as a result of an action or inaction, an activity, project, programme or policy.

What are the primary and secondary hazards that can be caused by an earthquake?

These include ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, and in some areas, tsunamis. These primary hazards often produce secondary hazards such as ruptured utility lines, hazardous spills, and fires. Buildings can crumble or collapse, trapping people inside and burying streets in rubble.