What is the Cancer Fatigue Scale?

What is the Cancer Fatigue Scale?

We designed this scale specifically to reflect the nature of fatigue experienced by cancer patients, by using factor analysis; the CFS is a 15-item scale composed of 3 subscales (physical, affective, and cognitive subscales). Three hundred seven cancer patients participated in the validation phase.

Do cytokines cause fatigue?

Although cytokines induce a large array of behavioral changes, including changes in mood and cognitive functions, fatigue is, interestingly, one of the first and most common symptoms associated with an activated immune system (47).

How do cytokines affect cancer?

Cytokines affect the growth of all blood cells and other cells that help the body’s immune and inflammation responses. They also help to boost anti-cancer activity by sending signals that can help make abnormal cells die and normal cells live longer. One specific type of cytokine is called a chemokine.

What kind of cancer causes extreme fatigue?

Is fatigue a sign of cancer? Fatigue may develop as a symptom of blood cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, because these cancers start in the bone marrow, which produces red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body.

Does Stage 4 cancer make you tired?

You may experience fatigue if cancer treatment damages healthy cells in addition to the cancer cells. Or fatigue might happen as your body works to repair damage caused by treatment. Some treatment side effects — such as anemia, nausea, vomiting, pain, insomnia and changes in mood — also may cause fatigue. Anemia.

How do you overcome fatigue from cancer?

8 Ways to Cope With Cancer-Related Fatigue

  1. Get treated for medical conditions or causes that make fatigue worse. Tell your doctor if you’re experiencing fatigue.
  2. Get moving.
  3. Take time to relax.
  4. Eat well.
  5. Practice good sleep habits.
  6. Engage in mind-body strategies.
  7. Consider therapy and counseling.
  8. Get a massage.

Why do cytokines make you feel sick?

Quick summary: your immune system releases cytokines, which release prostaglandins, which trigger the hypothalamus to get you to start behaving in a certain way. Your immune system creates sickness behaviors and sensations, not the illness itself.

How is fatigue related to inflammation?

The body undergoes stress as it tries to cope with the release of inflammatory cytokines (proteins) in the blood. That can cause fatigue, especially when disease activity is high or low-grade inflammation remains for a long time.

What cancers release cytokines?

Cytokines (endogenous) in cancer pathogenesis

Cytokines Role in cancer formation
GM-CSF Inhibits lymphomas and carcinomas
TNF-α Required for chemically-induced skin cancer
MIF Inhibits p53 tumor-suppressor functions
TGF-β Inhibits colon carcinomas

Do cancer cells release cytokines?

Cancer cells, stromal cells and immune cells populate the tumor microenvironment and secrete cytokines to facilitate the events supporting tumor growth. These include tumor cell initiation and proliferation, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

What does cancer-related fatigue feel like?

People with cancer might describe it as feeling very weak, listless, drained, or “washed out” that may decrease for a while but then comes back. Some may feel too tired to eat, walk to the bathroom, or even use the TV remote. It can be hard to think or move.

Why is fatigue a symptom of cancer?

Cancer uses your body’s nutrients to grow and advance, so those nutrients are no longer replenishing your body. This “nutrient theft” can make you feel extremely tired. There are lots of underlying causes of fatigue, many of them not cancer-related.

What is the effect of cytokines on fatigue?

In humans, pharmacologic doses of cytokines given for treatment of cancer or hepatitis C are associated with significant increases in fatigue and other markers of sickness, including depressed mood and sleep disturbance176–178.

Can anti-cytokine agents help treat cancer-related fatigue?

Based on research suggesting an inflammatory basis for cancer-related fatigue, a handful of small Phase II trials have used anti-cytokine agents to treat fatigue in patients with advanced cancer.

What is the pathophysiology of cancer treatment-related fatigue?

Overview. Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or selected biologic response modifiers.[ 1] Cancer treatment–related fatigue generally improves after therapy is completed, but some level of fatigue may persist for months or years following treatment.

What are the demographics of cancer patients with fatigue?

In terms of demographic factors, marital status and income have been linked to cancer-related fatigue in some reports, with unmarried patients who have a lower household income reporting higher levels of fatigue6, 19.