# What is the concept of orthogonality?

## What is the concept of orthogonality?

1a : intersecting or lying at right angles In orthogonal cutting, the cutting edge is perpendicular to the direction of tool travel. b : having perpendicular slopes or tangents at the point of intersection orthogonal curves.

What is orthogonality Please provide an example?

Orthogonality is the property that means “Changing A does not change B”. An example of an orthogonal system would be a radio, where changing the station does not change the volume and vice-versa. A non-orthogonal system would be like a helicopter where changing the speed can change the direction.

### What is orthogonality in readability?

Orthogonality — operations change just one thing without affecting others. A lack of orthogonality leads to exceptions to the rules, which reduces readability.

Is C++ orthogonal?

C++ is considered to be a non-orthogonal language.

## Why is C++ not orthogonal?

C/C++ is not orthogonal because arithmetic operators do not consistently work on pointers. C++ overloaded << and >> operators are non-orthogonal: they can mean bit shifting or output/input depending on the context (Stroustroup what were you thinking). Other examples of non-orthogonality in C: 1.

What is the condition of orthogonality?

In Euclidean space, two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is zero, i.e. they make an angle of 90° (π/2 radians), or one of the vectors is zero. Hence orthogonality of vectors is an extension of the concept of perpendicular vectors to spaces of any dimension.

### What is the orthogonality thesis?

Then the Orthogonality thesis, due to Nick Bostrom (Bostrom, 2012), states that: Intelligence and final goals are orthogonal axes along which possible agents can freely vary. In other words, more or less any level of intelligence could in principle be combined with more or less any final goal.

What is orthogonality in digital communication?

Overview. Orthogonal signals are used extensively in the communications industry. They range from a simple sine/cosine quadrature signals to multiple signals whose inner product is equal to zero. Orthogonal signals can be used for several different applications.

## What are five major programming domains?

There are many programming domains, but lets take the common domains:

• Scientific Applications.
• Artificial Intelligence.
• Systems Programming.
• Web Software.

What is orthogonal software?

In software design, two components are orthogonal if a change in one does not affect the other. Applying this concept to classes or other sections of code results in less coupling. To be orthogonal two classes cannot depend on each others implementation. They also cannot share global data.

### Is Python an orthogonal language?

One of reasons for the elegance of Python is it is an orthogonal language.

Is Java an orthogonal language?

Java is kindof orthogonal because public and static go together without any problems”.

## What is orthogonality in programming language design?

Archived 2009-01-31 at the Wayback Machine Orthogonality in programming language design is the ability to use various language features in arbitrary combinations with consistent results. This usage was introduced by Van Wijngaarden in the design of Algol 68 :

What is the most orthogonal programming language to learn?

I’d say LISP, or Scheme or a language from that family would be the most orthogonal. With let, lambda, define, if, cons, list, and ( ) you can teach pretty much anything that you’d want to in an intro course.

### What is the use of orthogonality in vector space?

Depending on the bilinear form, the vector space may contain nonzero self-orthogonal vectors. In the case of function spaces, families of orthogonal functions are used to form a basis . By extension, orthogonality is also used to refer to the separation of specific features of a system.

What is the orthogonality and rotation of coordinate systems?

Orthogonality and rotation of coordinate systems compared between left: Euclidean space through circular angle ϕ, right: in Minkowski spacetime through hyperbolic angle ϕ (red lines labelled c denote the worldlines of a light signal, a vector is orthogonal to itself if it lies on this line).