Table of Contents

## What is the importance of geostatistics?

Geostatistics allows for characterisation of the spatial (temporal) support within the stochastic model itself, thus supporting manipulation of the model, once fitted, to explore the effect of the support on prediction and other operations. Machine learning approaches rarely, if ever, do this.

### How is geostatistics different from statistics?

As nouns the difference between geostatistics and statistics is that geostatistics is (geology|mathematics) the application of statistics to geological observations while statistics is (singular in construction) a mathematical science concerned with data collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation.

#### What is geostatistics in geology?

Geostatistical Methods—Geostatistics is a collection of numerical techniques for the characterization of spatial attributes using primarily two tools: probabilistic models, which are used for spatial data in a manner similar to the way in which time-series analysis characterizes temporal data, or pattern recognition …

**How important is geostatistics as a tool in spatial Modelling?**

Geostatistics thus provides new dimensions in exploration, characterization, and evaluation of a mineral deposit, in which spatial correlation is the fundamental basis. It quantifies geological interpretation and reinforces it when used in estimation.

**How is statistics used in geostatistics?**

Geostatistics is a class of statistics used to analyze and predict the values associated with spatial or spatiotemporal phenomena. It incorporates the spatial (and in some cases temporal) coordinates of the data within the analyses.

## What is a variogram used for?

A variogram is an effective tool for describing the behavior of non-stationary, spatial random processes. It is used primarily in spatial statistics, geostatistics, and statistical design; In geostatistics, it is an “essential step” for analyzing spatial variability (Gómez-Hernández et al., 1999).

### What is kriging in geostatistics?

Kriging is a geostatistical interpolation technique that considers both the distance and the degree of variation between known data points when estimating values in unknown areas (Fig. 3.8). Kriging is a multistep process.

#### What is spatial continuity in geostatistics?

Structural analysis (also called spatial-continuity analysis) is the computation and modeling of the patterns of spatial dependence that characterize a regionalized variable. This amounts to the study of the experimental variogram.

**What is spatial correlation in geostatistics?**

It may be defined as “the correlation among values of [i.e., within] a single variable strictly attributable to their relatively close locational positions on a two-dimensional surface, introducing a deviation from the independent observations assumption of classical statistics.

**What are the elements of variogram?**

The common theoretical variogram fits the function model: spherical model, exponential model, power function model, and logarithmic function model. Regionalized variables of a variogram are selected from existing theoretical models. The above-mentioned models have been able to meet our needs.

## What is a variogram plot?

A Variogram is used to display the variability between data points as a function of distance. An example of an idealized variogram is shown below. This variogram represents the variability between data points that lie along a 45 degree (+/- 10 degree) bearing from each other.

### What does a variogram show?

A Variogram is used to display the variability between data points as a function of distance. An example of an idealized variogram is shown below. You might say that along this orientation, closely-spaced data points show a low degree of variability while distant points show a higher degree of variability.

#### What are the applications of geostatistics in different fields?

Initially developped for the mining field, geostatistics is now a discipline used in the analysis and management of mineral or renewable resources, environment, climatology, meteorology, ecology but also finance, advanced technologies or even health. Oil Industry : modelling the geometry, reservoir characterization, reservoir engineering, seismic.

**What are the statistical measures used in geostatistics?**

Therefore statistical measures such as mean value, variance, standard deviation, spatiotemporal dependence, etc., are used to extract any useful information from the available data. Geostatistics deals with distributions in which the spatial and/or temporal dependence is the primary characteristic.

**What are two-point Geostatistics methods?**

Two-point geostatistics methods, such as Sequential Indicator Simulation, are based on variograms, that only account for the spatial correlation between two points at a time. However, the spatial distribution of facies is generally more complex due to sedimentological and depositional processes.

## What has the geostatistical team contributed to science?

Since its creation, the geostatistical team has contributed to the realization of many projects, either methodological or in applied domains. Many software programs have been created at the Geosciences center. FLUMY aims at modelizing channelized meandering systems at reservoir scale using the genetic and stochastic approach.