What is virtue according to Aristotle quizlet?
Aristotle concludes that a virtue is ‘a state of character concerned with choice, lying in the mean (the mean relative to us), this being determined by a rational principle and by that principle by which the person practical wisdom would determine it’.
What are the two main virtues cultivated by codes of ethics?
Virtue Ethics For example, honesty and patience are often considered virtuous (i.e., “right” or “good”) behaviors regardless of the context and what may happen as a result of being honest and patient.
What are ethical goals?
The aim of ethics has been viewed in different ways: according to some, it is the discernment of right from wrong actions; to others, ethics separates that which is morally good from what is morally bad; alternatively, ethics purports to devise the principles by means of which conducting a life worth to be lived.
What are the two types of virtue according to Aristotle?
Summary. There are two kinds of virtue: intellectual and moral. We learn intellectual virtues by instruction, and we learn moral virtues by habit and constant practice.
What is difference between moral virtue and intellectual virtue?
The moral virtues are thought to include traits such as courage, justice, honesty, compassion, temperance, and kindness. Intellectual virtues are thought to include traits such as open-mindedness, intellectual rigour, intellectual humility, and inquisitiveness.
What is ethics according to Thomas Aquinas?
Aquinas’s ethical theory involves both principles – rules about how to act – and virtues – personality traits which are taken to be good or moral to have. People trying to use Aquinas to develop a virtue ethics, which challenges the legalistic thinking of analytical philosophy, play up the virtues instead.
What is the doctrine of the mean and how does it relate to the development of virtue?
Aristotle’s The Doctrine of the Mean is defined as: “virtue, then, is a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean, i.e. the mean relative to us, this being determined by rational principle, and by that principle by which the man of practical wisdom would determine it.” An interpretation of the passage …
What is Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean?
One of the most celebrated and discussed aspects of Aristotle’s Ethics is his Doctrine of the Mean, which holds that every virtue is a mean between the vicious extremes of excess and deficiency. If we could reason our way into virtue, we might be able to set out precise rules for how to behave in different situations.
What does Aristotle mean by the idea of aiming at the mean?
Aristotle defines moral virtue as a disposition to behave in the right manner and as a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess, which are vices. We always choose to aim at the good, but people are often ignorant of what is good and so aim at some apparent good instead, which is in fact a vice.
What is Aristotle’s ethical theory?
The moral theory of Aristotle, like that of Plato, focuses on virtue, recommending the virtuous way of life by its relation to happiness. In subsequent books, excellent activity of the soul is tied to the moral virtues and to the virtue of “practical wisdom” – excellence in thinking and deciding about how to behave.
What is Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean quizlet?
“The doctrine of the mean” refers to Aristotle’s view that. virtue is an intermediated position between two extremes. Aristotle says that to be a just person, it is not enough to act justly.
What are the 5 virtues of ethics?
“Virtues” are attitudes, dispositions, or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop this potential. They enable us to pursue the ideals we have adopted. Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence are all examples of virtues.
Who is St Thomas Aquinas and what is his contribution in ethics?
One of Aquinas’ contributions in Ethics is to mention, as much as possible, all of the things that matter in ethical evaluation of actions. He holds that the goodness or badness of an action lies in the interior act of will, in the external bodily act, in the very nature of the act, and even in its consequences.
What does Aristotle mean by claiming that virtue is a mean?
Aristotle describes a virtue as a “mean” or “intermediate” between two extremes: one of excess and one of deficiency. 2. Example: bravery (e.g. on a battlefield) Involves how much we let fear restrict or modify our actions. Bravery is the mean or intermediate between cowardliness and rashness.
What is Aquinas theory?
The master principle of natural law, wrote Aquinas, was that “good is to be done and pursued and evil avoided.” Aquinas stated that reason reveals particular natural laws that are good for humans such as self-preservation, marriage and family, and the desire to know God.
What makes a virtuous person?
Virtue, by definition, is the moral excellence of a person. Morally excellent people have a character made-up of virtues valued as good. They are honest, respectful, courageous, forgiving, and kind, for example.
What is the relationship between virtue and the doctrine of mean?
The good life is a life of virtuous activity, and he strongly believes this life could not be possible without mean states we acquire. According to the doctrine of the mean, virtue is the mean state toward good activities, and a virtuous person behaves appropriately out of his mean state.