## When can we reject the null hypothesis?

In null hypothesis testing, this criterion is called α (alpha) and is almost always set to . 05. If there is less than a 5% chance of a result as extreme as the sample result if the null hypothesis were true, then the null hypothesis is rejected. When this happens, the result is said to be statistically significant .

## What is the difference between a two sample t test and a paired t test?

Two-sample t-test is used when the data of two samples are statistically independent, while the paired t-test is used when data is in the form of matched pairs. To use the two-sample t-test, we need to assume that the data from both samples are normally distributed and they have the same variances.

## How do I know if a paired samples t test is significant?

Paired Samples T-Test Output The mean is the difference between the sample means. It should be close to zero if the populations means are equal. The mean difference between exams 1 and 2 is not statistically significant at α = 0.05. This is because ‘Sig.

## How do you know if a sample is independent or paired?

Paired-samples t tests compare scores on two different variables but for the same group of cases; independent-samples t tests compare scores on the same variable but for two different groups of cases.

## What is a paired t test example?

A paired t-test is used when we are interested in the difference between two variables for the same subject. Often the two variables are separated by time. For example, in the Dixon and Massey data set we have cholesterol levels in 1952 and cholesterol levels in 1962 for each subject.

## How do you interpret paired t test results?

Complete the following steps to interpret a paired t-test….

- Step 1: Determine a confidence interval for the population mean difference. First, consider the mean difference, and then examine the confidence interval.
- Step 2: Determine whether the difference is statistically significant.
- Step 3: Check your data for problems.

## How do you state a hypothesis?

State your hypothesis as concisely, and to the point, as possible. A hypothesis is usually written in a form where it proposes that, if something is done, then something else will occur. Usually, you don’t want to state a hypothesis as a question. You believe in something, and you’re seeking to prove it.

## How do you select the null hypothesis for a chi square test?

The degrees of freedom for the chi-square are calculated using the following formula: df = (r-1)(c-1) where r is the number of rows and c is the number of columns. If the observed chi-square test statistic is greater than the critical value, the null hypothesis can be rejected.

## How do you carry out a paired t test?

Paired Samples T Test By hand

- Example question: Calculate a paired t test by hand for the following data:
- Step 1: Subtract each Y score from each X score.
- Step 2: Add up all of the values from Step 1.
- Step 3: Square the differences from Step 1.
- Step 4: Add up all of the squared differences from Step 3.

## What do paired t tests show?

The paired sample t-test, sometimes called the dependent sample t-test, is a statistical procedure used to determine whether the mean difference between two sets of observations is zero. In a paired sample t-test, each subject or entity is measured twice, resulting in pairs of observations.

## What’s the difference between a paired t test and unpaired?

A paired t-test is designed to compare the means of the same group or item under two separate scenarios. An unpaired t-test compares the means of two independent or unrelated groups. In an unpaired t-test, the variance between groups is assumed to be equal.

## What is a hypothesis statement examples?

For example, let’s say you have a bad breakout the morning after eating a lot of greasy food. You may wonder if there is a correlation between eating greasy food and getting pimples. You propose the hypothesis: Eating greasy food causes pimples.