Which factor stimulates phosphorylation of CTD of RNA polymerase II?
The CTD of elongating RNAP II is phosphorylated by P-TEFb. P-TEFb was initially found to overcome pausing of RNAP II near promoters and to stimulate transcription elongation in vitro (Marshall and Price 1995; Marshall et al. 1996).
Which amino acid of CTD domains of RNA polymerase II is phosphorylated?
The CTD consists of repetitions of an amino acid motif, YSPTSPS, of which Serines and Threonines can be phosphorylated.
What phosphorylation is C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase?
The C-terminal repeat domain (CTD), an unusual extension appended to the C terminus of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, serves as a flexible binding scaffold for numerous nuclear factors; which factors bind is determined by the phosphorylation patterns on the CTD repeats.
How is RNA polymerase phosphorylated?
The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II undergoes a cycle of phosphorylation which allows it to temporally couple transcription with transcription-associated processes. The characterization of hitherto unrecognized metazoan elongation phase CTD kinase activities expands our understanding of this coupling.
What is the importance of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II?
RNA polymerase II, and specifically the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit, has been demonstrated to play important roles in capping, splicing, and 3′ processing of mRNA precursors. But how the CTD functions in these reactions, especially splicing, is not well understood.
Where is the RNA polymerase II phosphorylated?
Unphosphorylated RNA Pol II assembles within the initiation complex at the promoter. At this stage, the CTD may interact with factors important for regulation of transcription initiation. The CTD is then phosphorylated at Ser 5 by the TFIIH kinase subunit.
What is CTD in RNA polymerase II?
Does RNA polymerase need to be phosphorylated?
Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by TFIIH kinase is not essential for transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.
What is the CTD What role does the CTD play in transcription?
The CTD functions to help couple transcription and processing of the nascent RNA and also plays roles in transcription elongation and termination.
What is the CTD?
CTD stands for conductivity, temperature, and depth, and refers to a package of electronic instruments that measure these properties.
What is the role of the CTD in termination?
What is the function of the CTD in RNA polymerase II?
8082 Accesses The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) II comprises conserved heptad repeats, and post-translational modification of the CTD regulates transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing.
Is tyrosine phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II CTD Associated with antisense promoter transcription?
Descostes, N. et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II CTD is associated with antisense promoter transcription and active enhancers in mammalian cells. eLife 3, e02105 (2014). Nojima, T. et al. Mammalian NET-seq reveals genome-wide nascent transcription coupled to RNA processing.
What is the phosphorylation of CTD?
Therefore, a simple model of CTD phosphorylation is that Ser5 and Ser7 are phosphorylated at the beginning of transcription, and Ser2 and Thr4 phosphorylation occurs during elongation (Fig. 2). Open in a separate window Figure 2. Dynamic modification of the CTD during the transcription cycle.
Is yeast rtr1 a CTD phosphatase?
Finally, yeast Rtr1 (regulator of transcription 1) has also been reported to be a CTD phosphatase, functioning to dephosphorylate Ser5-P in vitro and in vivo (Mosley et al. 2009).